DEFINING WEIGHT LOSS
First, let’s define “weight loss.” When I say weight loss what I’m really referring to is loss of excess body fat. Losing muscle mass is rarely the goal, as is losing water weight (unless someone is retaining water [edema] due to a medical condition).
USUALLY SMALL EFFECT SIZES VERSUS OTHER DIETARY STRATEGIES
The 5 supplements we’re focusing on today have a notable amount of scientific evidence backing up their effectiveness for healthy weight loss when used properly. That said, the effect size for many of these is relatively small, and most individuals will see more significant weight loss effects by using dietary interventions such as macronutrient balancing (i.e. consuming custom amounts of water, fiber, protein, fats and carbs for their specific goals and physical condition) and/or intermittent fasting then they will from simply consuming the supplements below.
But like many habits in health it’s not an either/or approach (either diet or supplements) but a both/and situation that tends to yield the best results.
HOW THESE SUPPLEMENTS WORK
Before we dive into what some of the science says are effective supplements for weight loss, let’s quickly cover how many of these supplements work in the body (i.e. their respective mechanisms of action). Many of these supplements work by improving…
* digestive system health (ex. probiotics, magnesium, berberine, psyllium, vinegar)
* thermogenesis & supporting lean muscle growth & repair (ex. whey protein)
* metabolism via hormonal effects (iodine, DIM)
* blood sugar & insulin levels & functioning (berberine, chromium)
* cellular & mitochondrial functioning (carnitine)
1.HIGH DOSE PROBIOTICS
WHAT ARE PROBIOTICS?
Probiotics are beneficial bacteria and yeast that help support the gut microbiome, which is an organ (of sorts) that weighs 3-4lbs in adults and usually contains 30-40 trillion microbes! The condition of the gut microbiome plays a major role in digestion, immunity, the nervous system and systemic inflammation levels.
WHAT’S THE SCIENCE SAY REGARDING PROBIOTICS & WEIGHT LOSS?
A 2021 meta-analysis of 20 randomized controlled trials of 1411 patients found that probiotic supplementation exerted a positive weight loss effect on overweight and obese patients. 
Another 2021 review of 27 studies found that 23 of the studies observed positive effects of probiotics on weight loss. The study authors stated that “the intake of probiotics… could lead to significant weight reductions. Specific strains belonging to the genus Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were the most used and those that showed the best results in reducing body weight.” 
A 2020 meta-analysis of 15 trials lasting 3-12 weeks involving 957 patients found that probiotic supplementation resulted in significant reductions in BMI and body weight compared to placebo. However, the effect achieved was relatively small.
The study authors also pointed to a meta-analysis by Zhang et al. that looked at 25 studies involving 1931 adult patients, which “found that the consumption of probiotics could significantly reduce body weight and BMI. The best effect was achieved in the population of overweight and obese people (and when the) administration of probiotics lasted longer than 8 weeks. The study also suggests a better impact of multi-strain probiotics.” 
All these reviews suggest that probiotic supplementation (often using multi strain probiotics containing proven Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains) can have a significant but relatively small effect on weight loss. With weight loss, probiotic supplementation generally has a more pronounced effect on those who are obese and/or have chronic digestive system issues (ex. IBD, IBS, bloating, constipation, etc.).
Because probiotics are not an essential nutrient, no Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) has been set. Studies have used up to 3.6 TRILLION CFU/day with very positive results and no significant adverse effects. The most common side effects of high dose probiotics are temporary mild gastric upset, increased bowel movement frequency and/or watery/loose stools.
CONTRAINDICATIONS (WHO MAY WANT TO AVOID TRADITIONAL PROBIOTICS)
Conventional probiotic supplementation may be contraindicated for those with SIBO (small intestinal bacterial overgrowth). This population often benefits from probiotics that don’t contain standard Lacto and Bifido strains but do contain Bacillus strains (sometimes called soil based organisms or SBOs).
WHAT I NORMALLY RECOMMEND
For most of my clients I recommend a high dose probiotic (at least 50-100 billion CFU per capsule taken twice a day) containing a good mix of proven Lacto and Bifido strains. With Lactobacillus look for strains like acidophilus, rhamnosus, casei, plantarum, gasseri and reuteri. With Bifidobacterium look for strains like lactis, bifidum, breve, longum and infantis. Three of my favorite products are Now Foods 100 Billion CFU probiotics, Renew Life 90 Billion CFU for Women and Renew Life 90 Billion CFU for Men.
If you’re trying to maximize your probiotic intake from both supplements and foods, some of my favorite lower carb, high probiotic options include sauerkraut, kimchi, organic plain Greek yogurt and plain goat’s milk yogurt or kefir.
WHAT IS MAGNESIUM?
Magnesium is 1 of 6 essential macro minerals (also called electrolytes). Magnesium plays a major role in skeletal, cardiovascular and nervous system health, and exerts a relaxing effect on muscles and soft tissues. It’s this relaxing effect that makes oral magnesium an effective stool softener and constipation aid. Magnesium also plays a major role in energy production (it’s needed for cellular ATP metabolism).
It's estimated that 45-68% of Americans (somewhere between 1 in 2 and 2 in 3) are magnesium deficient. [4-5]
WHAT’S THE SCIENCE SAY REGARDING MAGNESIUM & WEIGHT LOSS?
When it comes to magnesium and weight loss, a 2021 review of 32 RCTs found that magnesium supplementation of 50-450mg/day reduced weight and BMI in patients with obesity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. 
A 2020 review of data on 1675 obese patients found that magnesium intake was inversely associated with obesity. In other words, as magnesium intake went up, the likelihood of obesity went down. Those with the highest magnesium intake were less than half as likely to be obese as those with the lowest magnesium intake. 
A 2013 study of 2295 adults found that higher magnesium intake was associated with the reduction of insulin resistance and is more beneficial for overweight and obese adults than for other individuals in the general population. 
In short, much of the scientific evidence suggests that proper magnesium intake (through diet and supplementation) is linked to healthy weight loss and a reduced likelihood of obesity and common metabolic diseases like insulin resistance.
Magnesium supplementation will likely be most helpful to those who are magnesium deficient and those who struggle with constipation or sluggish digestive motility and slow transit time.
The RDA for magnesium is 420mg for adults. While the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for supplemental magnesium is 350mg, magnesium supplements of 500mg per serving are common. This is because magnesium overload/toxicity is rare, and side effects of excess magnesium intake (usually >1000mg of supplemental magnesium a day or >500mg per serving) tend to result only in increased bowel movements with loose and watery stools.
WHAT I NORMALLY RECOMMEND
While magnesium oxide generally has the most pronounced laxative effect, I prefer magnesium citrate or glycinate supplements, as they offer increased magnesium absorption rates with a milder stool softening effect. Because higher doses of magnesium (>200mg) can contribute to drowsiness in certain people, I’ll often recommend a larger dose (200-500mg) taken at night and a smaller dose (100-200mg) taken in the morning. Some of my favorite products include the popular Natural Calm magnesium powder, as well as magnesium citrate and glycinate capsules made by companies like Pure Encapsulations and Nutricost.
If you’re trying to maximize your magnesium intake from both supplements and foods, some of my favorite lower carb, high magnesium options include pumpkin seeds, black beans and dark chocolate (>70% cacao).
WHAT IS WHEY PROTEIN?
Liquid milk (including cow’s milk and goat’s milk) contains 2 distinct proteins- whey protein (a faster digesting protein) and casein protein (a slower digesting protein).
WHAT’S THE SCIENCE SAY REGARDING PROTEIN (INCLUDING WHEY PROTEIN) & WEIGHT LOSS?
An ever increasing amount of evidence is highlighting the muscle building, fat burning and thermogenic (metabolism-boosting) effects of sufficient amounts of dietary protein. For instance, this 2020 review concluded that a “high protein diet is an effective and safe tool for weight reduction that can prevent obesity and obesity-related diseases.” 
Considering that, the question of “what’s the best/most effective source of dietary protein for weight loss” inevitably comes up.
Several rating systems have been created to help determine dietary protein quality, including biological value (BV), net protein utilization (NPU), protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) and digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS). Whey protein (and animal proteins in general) tend to score high using these systems while plant sources tend to score lower. For instance, with BV, whey protein tends to score between 100-160 followed by eggs (100), Greek yogurt (90), fish, beef and chicken (all around 80) and then beans (50).
The scientific data supports whey protein as an effective weight loss (and muscle building) tool. For instance, a 2022 review of 35 RCTs involving more than 1900 participants found that use of whey protein improved body composition indicators, including BMI, body fat mass, waist circumference and lean body mass. 
A 2018 review of 9 RCTs found that “Whey protein supplementation seems to improve body weight (and) total fat mass … in overweight and obese patients.” 
Finally, a 2014 review of 14 RCTs with 626 adults found that “The current body of literature supports the use of whey protein, either as a supplement combined with resistance exercise or as part of a weight loss or weight maintenance diet, to improve body composition parameters.” 
Whey protein supplementation is especially helpful for those who struggle to consume adequate amounts of daily protein, for those regularly engaging in moderate to high intensity exercise, and for individuals dealing with age related muscle loss (sarcopenia).
CONTRAINDICATIONS (WHO MAY WANT TO AVOID WHEY PROTEIN)
Whey protein may be contraindicated for those with severe dairy allergies, although most dairy allergies center around lactose (a sugar found in milk) and/or casein (the slow digesting protein distinct from whey). Those who adhere to a vegan diet will want to avoid whey protein, and protein supplements such as high quality pea protein powder may prove a decent substitute (although the amino acid profile of plant proteins such as pea, hemp, rice, etc. won’t be as robust as that of whey).
WHAT I NORMALLY RECOMMEND
When it comes to whey, I recommend a grass-fed whey protein supplement (either isolate or concentrate), as I’ve found them to have a much lower risk of gastric upset (including bloating) than conventional whey supplements. While an effective/therapeutic dosage will vary somewhat depending on the individual (ex. a large man engaging in high intensity training who has a healthy weight of 200lbs has different protein needs than a small framed elderly woman with a healthy weight of 110lbs), I generally advise my clients to consume 30-50g of protein via their whey supplement, 1-2x a day (usually in a shaker bottle drink or a smoothie). Some of my favorite grass fed whey protein powder products include those made by Levels (a good value for grass fed whey) and Natural Factors.
I’ve written before on iodine’s ability to boost metabolism via thyroid functioning (click here to see that article).
WHAT IS IODINE?
Iodine is one of 8 essential trace minerals and is needed to produce thyroid hormones (namely T4 and the more bioactive T3). Chronic iodine deficiency can lead to enlarged thyroid (goiter) and/or hypothyroidism, which can have a negative effect on metabolism, which can lead to weight gain. [13-14]
The RDA for iodine is 150mcg and the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) is 1100mcg (or 1.1g), although both these numbers are hotly contested by many functional and integrative healthcare providers (more on that below). 
Foods relatively high in iodine include whitefish like cod and haddock (150mcg per 4oz), eggs (~75mcg per 3 eggs), milk/yogurt (~60mcg per cup), navy beans (~60mcg per cup cooked beans) and iodized salt (45mcg per gram). 
It was widespread goiter in the upper Midwest (sometimes referred to as the “Goiter Belt”) in the early parts of the 20th century that lead to the iodization of salt in the 1920s. And while adding iodine to salt helped reduce the prevalence of goiter (and the severity of goiter cases), it by no means eradicated the disease, in part because the amount of iodine in iodized salt (45mcg iodine per gram of salt) is usually not a therapeutic amount for those with moderate to severe hypothyroidism caused (or exacerbated) by iodine deficiency. [17-18]
Indeed, despite salt iodization efforts over the last 100 years, “mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency is common and appears to be increasing,” say the authors of a 2020 study. A previous study showed that, based on urinary iodine concentrations, the number of Americans with low iodine levels increased by an astounding 400% from 1974 to 1994. [19-20]
Those benefitting most from iodine supplementation include those with classic hypothyroidism and/or under-functioning thyroid (as evidenced by symptoms and sub optimal free T3 and free T4 biomarkers).
Contraindications for high dose iodine may include those with hyperthyroidism, Grave’s disease, Hashimoto’s and those with thyroid nodules. Iodine is also a potent broad spectrum antimicrobial, so those dealing with toxemia should be aware of the risk of side effects (i.e. healing crisis/detox/Herxheimer reactions).
WHAT I NORMALLY RECOMMEND
As I mentioned, the amount of iodine a person should consume (especially if that person has an under-functioning thyroid gland) is a hotly contested topic. While the RDA is 150mcg and the UL is 1100mcg for iodine, many integrative and functional medical providers will recommend iodine supplementation in the 1mg (1,000mcg) to 12.5mg (12,500mcg) a day range, which is 6-80 times the RDA (and well over the UL in many cases). Some providers (namely high dose iodine pioneers Dr. David Brownstein MD and Dr. Guy Abraham MD) will even advocate for doses up to 50mg/day for those suffering from more severe hypothyroidism. [21-22]
For most of my clients (not including those with hyperthyroidism, Grave’s, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis or thyroid nodules) I tend to recommend iodine supplementation in the 1-12.5mg/day range, as I’ve found that range most effective. With iodine supplements I prefer pills over liquid (Lugol’s solution). Some of my preferred products include Life Extension (1mg), Terry’s Naturally (3mg & 25mg) and Iodoral (6.25mg & 12.5mg).
WHAT IS BERBERINE?
Berberine is a naturally occurring isoquinoline alkaloid found in several plants including goldenseal and Oregon grape root. While it has a long history of use in Ayurvedic traditions and Traditional Chinese Medicine, berberine is definitely enjoying a moment in popular culture right now. Due in part to some viral TikTok videos, berberine is being dubbed “nature’s Ozempic” (after the popular weight loss drug) and use of the supplement has soared.
But does science back up the weight loss claims of berberine proponents? Let’s see…
WHAT’S THE SCIENCE SAY REGARDING BERBERINE & WEIGHT LOSS?
A 2021 review of 18 studies found that berberine can help combat obesity and hyperlipidemia (high blood lipids like cholesterol and triglycerides) by improving lipid markers and reducing insulin resistance. 
A 2020 review of 12 studies found that berberine supplementation moderately but significantly decreased body weight (by around 4.5lbs) as well as BMI and waist circumference. 
And finally, the authors of a 2020 study stated that…
“Berberine can modulate the diversity of gut microbes at the dose of 500 mg/day.
In addition, Berberine is found to have a beneficial impact on gene regulation for the absorption of cholesterol at a daily dose of 300 mg in humans.
An amelioration on glucose accumulation at 1.0 g daily dose was also observed.
For all these reasons, this review gives an important (and) good account of the impact of Berberine in obesity treatment and prevention.” 
In short, berberine helps with healthy weight loss through a variety of mechanisms, including by improving the gut microbiome, balancing cholesterol levels, and through positive impacts on glucose and insulin regulation.
As a weight loss supplement, berberine tends to be most effective for those dealing with gut dysbiosis (low levels of beneficial bacteria/yeast and/or significant presence of pathogenic microbes), unhealthy cholesterol levels, and type 2 diabetes, as well as those combating other blood sugar and insulin related dysfunction (ex. Insulin resistance).
Berberine is contraindicated for pregnant women, and while most mainstream sources will advise nursing mothers to avoid berberine, there are some who argue that small amounts of berberine carry no real risk for nursing women.
WHAT I NORMALLY RECOMMEND
For berberine supplementation I generally recommend my clients take 500-1000mg two times a day (usually AM with breakfast and PM with dinner). Thorne and Doublewood each produce a high quality berberine supplement (both at 500mg per capsule).
A FEW OTHER SUPPLEMENTS POSSIBLY WORTH LOOKING AT
Using psyllium fiber for weight loss has yielded mixed scientific results. One of the more encouraging studies was a 2018 RCT of more than 50 patients with diabetes and constipation, which found that 10g of psyllium per day over 12 weeks led to significant reductions in weight as well as decreased constipation symptoms. 
That study makes sense, as other studies have found that increasing fiber intake by 14g/day is associated with losing an extra pound per month. 
I’ve found psyllium is especially helpful for those who struggle with constipation and/or getting enough dietary fiber in each day (usually 20-50g/day is the target for my clients).
APPLE CIDER VINEGAR (ACV)
A folk remedy hero, ACV (containing the organic acid acetic acid) does have some clinical data to back up its health effects, including a 2018 study of 39 people that found that “consumption of ACV significantly reduced body weight.” 
I’ve found ACV especially helpful for those who also struggle with indigestion and/or chronic kidney disease.
Carnitine is a quaternary ammonium compound that helps the body turn fatty acids into energy. A 2020 meta-analysis of more than 2200 participants found that consuming 2000mg of carnitine a day resulted in significant reductions in weight and fat mass. 
Like iodine, chromium is one of eight essential trace minerals needed by the human body. Most of the research on chromium centers on its ability to regulate and support healthy blood sugar levels. A 2019 meta analysis of 21 trials involving more than 1300 participants found that more than 400mcg of chromium a day when taken for more than 12 weeks led to “significant reductions in body composition (including) weight loss, BMI and body fat percentage in overweight and obese individuals.” 
WHAT ABOUT CLA, MCT OIL, DHEA, DIM & CAFFEINE?
A few other supplements (ex. CLA, MCT oil, DHEA, DIM) also have some data supporting their use for healthy weight loss, but my first recommendation for most people would be to consider probiotics, magnesium, whey protein, iodine and berberine first, and then psyllium, ACV, carnitine and chromium next before considering this third tier group. [31-38]
Lastly, caffeine does have a relatively robust amount of scientific evidence supporting its positive effects on weight loss and caffeine does regularly show up in certain supplements (ex. “fat burners”, pre workouts, etc.). That said, because the widespread consumption of caffeinated beverages (coffee, tea, energy drinks, etc.) is so prevalent, with three of these beverages (coffee, green tea and yerba mate) carrying with them health benefits in addition to their caffeine content, I tend to encourage caffeine consumption via coffee, green tea and/or yerba mate more so than in supplement form (which is why caffeine isn’t mentioned above). 
1 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7922558/ (2021; meta analysis of 20 RCTS with 1411 patients; “the results of this meta-analysis highlight a positive trend of probiotics supplementation on… overweight and obese patients with related metabolic diseases.”)
2 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8540110/ (2021; review of 27 studies, “of which 23 observed positive effects (of probiotics) on weight loss. The intake of probiotics… could lead to significant weight reductions... Specific strains belonging to the genus Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were the most used and those that showed the best results in reducing body weight.”)
3 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7465252/ (2020; “a meta-analysis based on 15 clinical trials involving 957 people (intervention time was 3–12 weeks) resulted in a significant reduction in BMI and body weight compared to placebo. However, the effect achieved was small. Similar results were obtained in a meta-analysis conducted by Zhang et al. on a group of 1931 people over 18 years of age. Based on 25 studies, it was found that the consumption of probiotics could significantly reduce body weight and BMI. The best effect was achieved in the population of overweight and obese people, as the administration of probiotics lasted longer than eight weeks. The study also suggests a better impact of multi-strain probiotics.”)
4 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6163803/ (2018 study on magnesium; 45-60% of population are mag deficient)
5 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5637834/ (2017 study on magnesium; 56-68% of population are mag deficient)
6 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32654500/ (2021, review of 32 RCTs found that mag supplementation of 50-450mg reduced weight in obese, insulin-resistant and CVD patients)
7 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7483156/ (2020; 1,675 incident cases of obesity were identified. After adjustment for potential confounders, Mg intake was inversely associated with incidence of obesity. Those with highest intake were less than half as likely to be obese as those with lowest intake.)
8 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3589265/ (2013; study of 2295 adults; higher dietary magnesium intake is strongly associated with the reduction of insulin resistance and is more beneficial for overweight and obese individuals in the general population)
9 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7539343/ (2020; review of positive weight loss and body comp effects of high protein diets; “HPD is an effective and safe tool for weight reduction that can prevent obesity and obesity-related diseases”)
10 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35871954/ (2022; 35 RCTS, >1900 ppl, The data… supports the use of whey protein to improve body composition indicators (including BMI, body fat mass, waist circumference and lean body mass))
11 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29087242/ (2018 review of 9 RCTS found that “Whey protein supplementation seems to improve body weight (and) total fat mass … in overweight and obese patients.”
12 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24724774/ (2014; review of 14 RCTs with 626 adults; “The current body of literature supports the use of WP, either as a supplement combined with resistance exercise or as part of a weight loss or weight maintenance diet, to improve body composition parameters.”)
13 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8626876/ (2021; “An adequate iodine nutritional status is essential for thyroid hormone synthesis. When the dietary iodine intake is insufficient, both T4 and T3 biosynthesis may be compromised, and hypothyroidism may occur.”)
14 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4911848/ (2016; “According to common perception, hypothyroidism is held responsible for obesity... Overt hypothyroidism is associated with modest weight gain”)
15 https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Iodine-HealthProfessional/ (2023 iodine fact sheet)
17 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3509517/ (2012; history of iodine fortification)
18 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9100585/ (1997; iodized salt mostly effective at reducing goiter in young children but not very effective for treating established goiter)
19 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9459956/ (2022; “In the U.S., in spite of salt-iodization policies, mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency is common and appears to be increasing.”)
20 www.cdc.gov/media/pressrel/ad981001.htm (Number of Americans with low urinary iodine increased from 3% to 12% from 1974 to 1994).
23 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107691/ (2021; review of 18 studies found that Berberine can improve obesity and hyperlipidemia by improving lipid markers and reduce insulin resistance to improve T2D.)
24 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32690176/ (2020; review of 12 studies found that Berberine treatment moderately but significantly decreased body weight (~2kg or 4.4lbs), BMI and waist circumference)
25 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32353823/ (2020; “Berberine can modulate the diversity of gut microbes at the dose of 500 mg/day. In addition, Berberine is found to have a beneficial impact on gene regulation for the absorption of cholesterol at a daily dose of 300 mg in humans. An amelioration on glucose accumulation at 1.0 g daily dose was also observed. For all these reasons, this review gives an important good account of the impact of Berberine in obesity treatment and prevention.”)
26 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30219432/ (2018, RCT, > 50 ppl, 10g psyllium over 12 weeks, reduced weight in patients w/ T2D and chronic constipation)
27 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3705355/ (2013 review showing increasing fiber intake by 14g/day leads to extra 1lb weight loss per month)
28 www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1756464618300483 (2018, RCT, 39 people, “consumption of ACV significantly reduced body weight (and) BMI”)
29 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32359762/ (2020, meta-analysis, over 2200 ppl, 2000mg carnitine/day resulted in significant reduction in weight and fat mass)
30 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31115179/ (2019; meta-analysis of 21 trials, >1300 ppl found that chromium supp (>400mcg/day, >12 weeks) “(chromium supplementation led to) significant reductions … in body composition [including] weight loss, BMI and body fat percentage in overweight/obese individuals.”)
31 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6413010/ (2019, review, “CLA consistently confers some degree of body weight and/or adiposity loss in animal models and humans”)
32 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2874190/ (2008; small study showing superior weight loss benefits for MCT vs olive oil)
33 https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/199765 (2004; 52 elderly men and women, 50mg DHEA for 6 months; “DHEA therapy … induced significant decreases in visceral fat area and subcutaneous fat”)
34 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32745490/ (2020, meta analysis; “DHEA supplementation… increased lean body mass and decreased fat mass when compared to control groups”)
35 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36111381/ (2023 study; 75mg DIM for 30 days found that “The DIM group saw a more significant decrease in body fat percentage than the placebo group”)
36 https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/WeightLoss-HealthProfessional/ (2022 review of literature; CLA & chromium minimal weight loss effect; carnitine more modest effect on weight loss)
37 www.healthline.com/health/metabolism-boosters-weight-loss#takeaway (2016 article; similar conclusions as above article)
38 https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00908.x (2011; review of supplements for weight loss)
39 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30335479/ (2019; meta-analysis of caffeine’s positive effect on weight loss)